Apnoea

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ResMed has announced at the ESC Congress 2013, that SERVE-HF has completed enrollment. SERVE-HF is an international, randomised study of 1,325 participants investigating if the treatment of central sleep-disordered breathing (central sleep apnea) improves survival and outcomes of patients with stable heart failure.

Approximately 14 million people in Europe are living with heart failure and central sleep-disordered breathing is known to be a highly prevalent co-morbidity in these patients. With an estimated 30-50 percent of heart failure patients potentially at risk from this condition, the results from SERVE-HF may have important consequences for the future management of these patients.

“Completing recruitment of SERVE-HF has been an important milestone in this landmark trial,” said co-principal investigator, Professor Martin Cowie of the Royal Brompton Hospital in London. “We owe much to the commitment and dedication of SERVE-HF investigators and to a strong collaboration between sleep specialists and cardiologists. We now look forward to results in 2016 and to a fuller understanding of just how important the treatment of central sleep-disordered breathing is in heart failure patients.”

SERVE-HF will, for the first time, provide conclusive evidence of the health impact of effectively treating heart failure patients who have central sleep-disordered breathing. The trial, which began in 2008, is sponsored by ResMed. Designed as an event-driven study, its completion is anticipated by mid-2015 and results are expected to be available in the first half of 2016.

 

 

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Medical Xpress reports that women diagnosed with gestational diabetes are nearly seven times more likely to have obstructive sleep apnoea than other pregnant women, according to a recent study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM). Gestational diabetes causes glucose levels in the bloodstream to rise above normal levels. This form of diabetes occurs during pregnancy, typically in the second trimester. Between four and eight of every 100 pregnant women in the United States develop gestational diabetes.

The new study found a link between gestational diabetes and sleep apnoea, which causes brief interruptions in breathing during sleep. If sleep apnea goes untreated, it can raise the risk for stroke, cardiovascular disease and heart attacks.

“It is common for pregnant women to experience sleep disruptions, but the risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea increases substantially in women who have gestational diabetes,” said Sirimon Reutrakul, MD, who conducted the research at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago. “Nearly 75 percent of the participants in our study who had gestational diabetes also suffered from obstructive sleep apnoea.”

In a series of observational case control studies, researchers monitored 45 women for sleep apnoea and other sleep disruptions. The research examined sleep health in 15 pregnant women who had gestational diabetes, 15 pregnant women who did not have the condition and 15 women who were not pregnant and did not have diabetes.

The study found a strong association between obstructive sleep apnoea and gestational diabetes in this group of mostly overweight or obese women. Pregnant women who did not have gestational diabetes were able to get an additional hour of sleep and had less fragmented sleep than women who had gestational diabetes. Past research has shown lost sleep, fragmented sleep and shorter periods spent in deep sleep – all symptoms of sleep apnoea – are likely to raise the risk a person will develop diabetes.

“Based on these findings, women who have gestational diabetes should be considered for evaluation for obstructive sleep apnoea, especially if other risk factors such as hypertension or obesity are present, and women already diagnosed with sleep apnoea should be monitored for signs of gestational diabetes during pregnancy,” Reutrakul said.

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Participants in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort who self-identified as having asthma at the start of the research in 1988 had a 41% incident obstructive sleep apnea rate, compared with an obstructive sleep apnea incident rate of 29% among participants who did not report asthma at the beginning of the study, said Mihaela Teodorescu, MD, of the University of Wisconsin in Madison.

Of the 205 individuals who reported a history of asthma, 84 developed obstructive sleep apnea during the 8-year interval sleep studies, she reported at the annual meeting of the American Thoracic Society. Of the 1,278 individuals who entered the study without a self-report of asthma, 369 had developed incident obstructive sleep apnea after 8 years.

“There has been a body of evidence published suggesting that there is a relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and asthma,” Teodorescu told MedPage Today. “Each disorder makes the other worse, so understanding what starts this vicious cycle is very important. We asked the question of whether asthma promotes the development of obstructive sleep apnea.”

“In this cohort we found that having asthma at baseline predicted an increased incidence of obstructive sleep apnea 8 years later,” she said. “Overall, having any asthma at baseline predicted about a 72% higher likelihood of developing obstructive sleep apnea 8 years later.”

“Interestingly, when stratifying by the age of diagnosis, childhood onset of asthma was a higher predictor for development of obstructive sleep apnea, with an odds ratio of about 2.1,” she said in a press briefing following her poster presentation. “For each 5 years increment in duration of asthma, the likelihood of developing obstructive sleep apnea increased by 12%,” she said.

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The British Lung Foundation are carrying out the biggest ever survey of sleep apnoea sufferers in the UK. It asks people with OSA what they think about their condition and their treatment, and what they would like services to look like in the future for OSA patients. If you are a sufferer please take the time to contribute.

Complete the survey here

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Sleep deprivation is a significant hidden factor in lowering the achievement of school pupils, according to researchers carrying out international education tests.

It is a particular problem in more affluent countries, with sleep experts linking it to the use of mobile phones and computers in bedrooms late at night. Sleep deprivation is such a serious disruption that lessons have to be pitched at a lower level to accommodate sleep-starved learners, the study found.

The international comparison, carried out by Boston College, found the United States to have the highest number of sleep-deprived students, with 73% of 9 and 10-year-olds and 80% of 13 and 14-year-olds identified by their teachers as being adversely affected. In literacy tests there were 76% of 9 and 10-year-olds lacking sleep.

This was much higher than the international average of 47% of primary pupils needing more sleep and 57% among the secondary age group. Other countries with the most sleep-deprived youngsters were New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, Australia, England, Ireland and France. High-performing Finland is also among the most lacking in sleep. Countries with the best records for getting enough sleep include Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Portugal, the Czech Republic, Japan and Malta.

The analysis was part of the huge data-gathering process for global education rankings – the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS).

Read the full BBC story

 

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Lack of sleep can lead you to eat larger portions of high-calorie foods and increase your long-term risk of weight gain, according to a small new study. Swedish researchers asked 16 normal-weight males to choose their ideal portions of high-calorie meals and snacks. They did this when they had a normal night of about eight hours sleep and again when they went a night without sleep.

The participants chose larger portion sizes after the night with no sleep. They did this both before and after a breakfast, which suggests that sleep deprivation increases food intake regardless of whether a person feels full, said study author Pleunie Hogenkamp, of Uppsala University.

“Bearing in mind that insufficient sleep is a growing problem in modern society, our results may explain why poor sleep habits can affect people’s risk to gain weight in the long run,” Hogenkamp said in a university news release.

The study was published online Feb. 18 in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology. In a previous study, the same team of researchers found that young, normal-weight men who went a single night without sleep had increased activation of a brain region involved in the desire to eat.

Although the study found an association between lack of sleep and increased appetite for high-calorie foods, it did not prove a cause-and-effect relationship.

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Here is the latest eNewsletter summary of what has been on the blog over the past month:

Snore Centre eNewsletter February 2013

 

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A new research paper published in the Journal of Sleep Research claims that attentional control is partially impaired in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

“In the current study, we investigated whether attentional control is deficient in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Attentional control processes were investigated through conflict adaptation and conflict frequency paradigms. These neuropsychological paradigms were assessed by using the Simon, Flanker and Stroop tasks. We additionally analysed post-error slowing data within these tasks. Error processing is another index of cognitive control that is mediated by frontal lobe functioning.”

The sample consisted of 14 healthy adults and 24 patients with untreated moderate–severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.

“Results indicated that attentional control is partially dysfunctional among patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Attentional control processes were deficient when focal attention (Flanker task) processes were involved, but were intact when observed using the Simon and Stroop tasks. A non-significant trend in post-error slowing data suggested that error processing, assessed with the Flanker task, was diminished among patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. These results support the view that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome leads to some amount of frontal lobe dysfunction, and that attentional control and error processing might be particularly affected by obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome.”

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